The date fruit is made up of the pericarp, mesocarp, endocarp, and a seed (kernel or pit) and the fruits undergo different stages of development including Hanabauk, Kimri, Khalal (or Besser), Rutab, and Tamr. Date fruits are consumed at different stages of maturation including Khalal or Besser (the mature but unripe with 50% moisture), Rutab (ripened with 30%–35% moisture), and Tamr (mature with 10%–30% moisture).
The date fruit is consumed widely and has been used for traditional medicine purposes for a long time, for the treatment of ailments such as intestinal disorders, fever, bronchitis, and wound healing. The fruits are nutrient rich, containing 6.5%–11.5% total dietary fibers (up to 90% of which is insoluble and 10% of soluble dietary fiber), sugar, protein, vitamins, minerals, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds.
The fruits are classified based on their sugar type into (i) invert sugar types containing mainly glucose and fructose (e.g., Barhi and Saidy), (ii) mixed sugar types (e.g., Khadrawy, Halawy, Zahidi, and Sayer), and (iii) cane sugar types containing mainly sucrose (e.g., Deglet Nour and Deglet Beidha)
Due to the presence of the phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, resorcinol, chlorogenic acid, and syringic acid), date palm fruits are antioxidant rich with potent bioactivities against several bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity of the fruit is correlated with its rich antioxidant contents including alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins.
Therefore, on the basis of the available evidence, a scientific research concluded that date fruits are a good source of natural antioxidants, which can be used for the management of oxidative stress–related and infectious diseases.
Source: Hussah A. Al-Shwyeh, 'Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruit as Potential Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents', 2019, Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, Vol. 11(1): 1–11.